Contemporary Understanding of Migration and its Motivators


By Gvantsa Kvirikashvili & Tarcisio Tomas De Fatima



The movement of people from one part of the world to another is known as human migration. Human migrations have changed the face of lands, as well as the racial, ethnic, and linguistic composition of the populations, throughout recorded history, with the earliest migrants originating from the African continent. As societies have become less nomadic, war and colonialism became more important factors in migration. Currently, 3 per cent of the world's population live in countries other than their own.


Migrants can be divided into different sub-categories:

An emigrant is someone who moves from one country to another.

An immigrant is a person who comes from one country to another in search of a new home.

A refugee is someone who has relocated to a new country due to a problem in their previous one.


The question here is what compels people to choose to migrate from one place to another. Broadly speaking, the triggering factors can be put as push factors and pull factors. The former includes difficulties, such as food scarcity, conflict, or natural disasters, while the latter encompasses more favourable circumstances, such as better career prospects, or a better food supply. The majority of people migrate voluntarily in search of better economic prospects or homes. Voluntary migrations of refugees fleeing war, famine, or natural calamities fall somewhere in between these two categories.


However, the migrating factors are more multi-faceted and incorporate more layers. When attempting to understand why individuals migrate, someplace a greater emphasis on individual decision-making, while others highlight broader structural influences. It is important to take into account various levels of explanation, such as the individual, familial, and structural-institutional, for a complete understanding of the decision to migrate.


The first level of explanation focuses on individual perception and examines what benefits individuals seek to get by relocating. The second one relies on the idea of the family, expressing the desire of a broader family group to increase its security or well-being. The third level centres around the broad social, political, and economic conditions that promote or constrain population migration.


For the time being, the migration from rural to urban areas has been the dominating trend in internal migration since the twentieth century. As a result, urbanisation has been extremely rapid throughout much of the world, particularly in developing countries.


However, migration driven by famine, natural disasters, and human rights abuses continues in the 21st century. On top of that, people may soon become "climate migrants," displaced from their homes by floods, droughts, and water shortage as a result of changing climate. Although climate change is rarely cited as the only cause of migration, it is commonly acknowledged as a contributing and worsening element in migration and conflict. Whatever the causes, migration will almost certainly continue as long as there are individuals and places to go.


Furthermore, migration is also a term used to describe the process of moving from one location to another in order to live and work. Migration is the movement of people from one city, state, or country to another for work, shelter, or other reasons. Many people nowadays choose to relocate in order to improve their lives. The most common cause for migration is job opportunity.


Migration is becoming an increasingly relevant topic in city life. The many changes and attractions of larger cities attract a significant number of individuals.


Migration also has positive effects on the life of the migrants:

  1. Unemployment is minimized, and people have more job opportunities.

  2. People's quality of life improves as a result of migration.

  3. People's social lives are improved as they learn about other cultures, customs, and languages, which promotes brotherhood among them.

  4. Children get better opportunities for higher education.


Migrations fall into several broad categories. To begin, there is a distinction to be made between internal and international migration. Individuals and families move from one location to another within a country, for example, from rural to urban areas, but this is not the same as moving from one country to another. Second, migration might be either voluntary or involuntary. The majority of voluntary movement, whether internal or international, is done in search of better economic or housing possibilities. People who have been forcibly moved as slaves or prisoners, or who have been ejected by governments during war or other political upheavals, are the most common victims of forced migrations.

Human migrations have changed the face of lands and continents, as well as the racial, ethnic, and linguistic composition of their populations, throughout recorded history. For example, the map of Europe is the result of numerous large early migrations involving Germanic peoples, Slavs, and Turks, among others.


As a result, migrants are traditionally defined as people who move from one country to another for a variety of reasons. These goals could include the search for improved work possibilities or the desire for healthcare. This is the most broadly defined phrase, as anyone who permanently changes their geographic place is considered a migrant. Refugees, on the other hand, are not narrowly defined and are defined as people who refuse to relocate voluntarily. The reasons for the refugees' migration are mainly related to internal wars or other forms of persecution, which can come from both government and non-government sources. Moreover, asylum seekers are connected with those who, while voluntarily leaving their country, do not do so under oppressive conditions such as war or death threats. Asylum seekers may be motivated to flee the country because of the country's unstable economic or political condition or high crime rates. As a result, the majority of asylum seekers relocate in order to improve the quality of their lives.


Accepting migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers is also a victory for the receiving country and the communities that host them. On the other hand, refugees can begin productive lives in their host nations if they are given the right to work, health, and education. They can become productive members of society faster if they can integrate into the labour force.


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