What is Artificial Intelligence ?

By Maryam Shahid

Artificial Intelligence (AI) as we see it today is everywhere. From the voice command on your phone to the navigation system in your car, everything around us is containing a certain share of AI. A little more than a century ago a human would not able to believe the things that are a reality today. One of those things is AI which allows us to create these gigantic models which help us to build the future for the generations to come, help us find our way in the busiest of cities even help our disabled peers to be able to do something. Whether it is Computer, Medicine or Military nothing can be done in today life without the help of this miracles intelligence which can do the work of years in seconds.

The main concept of AI came to the scientist in less than a decade after World War II due to breaking the encryption machine Enigma and helping the allied forces win World war II. Because of the help of a mathematician Alan Turning changed the world view by the simple question “Can machines think?”.

Turning’s research paper “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” published in 1950 and its succeeding.Turning test paved a way for the foundational goal and a clear site for artificial intelligence.

At the center, AI is a branch of computer science that helps us to build and drive the conclusion to Turing’s question. It is the means to mimic human intelligence in computing and mechanical devices.

The development in the field of artificial intelligence has given rise to many questions and discourses. Much that not a singular definition for AI is universally accepted.

The main approach that can fully define what is AI and what is not is as follow:

  1. The machines that can think like humans.

  2. The machines that can think Rationally.

  3. The machines that can act like humans.

  4. The machines that can act rationally.

The first two of these approaches deal with the processes in a machine how it will solve the problem. Thinking rationally means that a machine can drive a better outcome by perceiving its environment that can then be understood the humans. The last two approaches deal with the behavior of a machine.

In the words of Patrick Watson (Ford professor of AI and computer sciences at MIT) “Artificial intelligence is the collection of algorithms enabled by the constraints exposed by the representations that support models targeted at loops that tie thinking, perception and action together.”

Maybe these definitions might seem conceptual to the average human, it helps us to focus on AI as the field of Computer Sciences and give us a plan for programs and machines with deep learning and other subtypes of artificial intelligence.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, machines, deep learning.